Viral disease are causes by various diseases:
- Caused by DEN-1 virus and transmitted by female Tiger mosquito(Aedes aegypti).
- It’s symptoms are headache,fever chili,pain in joints and skin rashes.
- Blood platelets number fall below 70000/mm.
- Paracetamol with replenishment of blood platelets may be helpful.
Measles [viral disease causes]
- Caused by Rubeola virus/Polynosa morbillorum.
- Transmitted by contact, droplet and fomite method.
- Viruses enters through respiratory tract and conjunctiva.
- It is characterised by itching,skin rash, small raised red spot in crescent shaped groups starting from back of ears and reaching to forehead, face and then on whole body.
- Antibiotics and vitamin-A given to prevent complications.
- Caused by Varicella zoster with incubation period of 14-16 days.
- It is contagious disease occurs in winter and springs.
- Presence of prodermal rashes with crops of pinkish centripetal spots first on truck, fore-head and face.
- Uneasiness, aches and high fever accompany each new crop.
- Scabs fall off without leaving any mark.
- No drugs and no vaccines only use of boric acid and calamine reduces itching problem.
- Caused by Variola virus.
- Common but less severe in children of upto 10yr and severe but rare in adults.
- Infection spreads from oral, nasal, vesicular discharges, pustules and scabs.
- Symptoms are reddish spots which change into papules,pushtules and finally scabs.
- Spots appear first on the hair line, then face followed by over rest of the body, but fewer on the trunk.On falling,these spots left permanent marks.
- Vaccination through small pox vaccine, which has developed by Edward Jenner in 1796.
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- Caused by Paramyxo or Mumps virus.
- Transmitted by direct contact, droplet and fomite method.
- It this disease patient feels difficulty in swallowing and opening of mouth.
- Symptoms are high fever, chilis, headache and general body aches.
- Treated by vaccination with MMR.
Polio-[viral disease causes]
- Caused by Polio virus or Entero virus.
- Highly infectious disease of infant and children.
- Transmitted through faeces, urine and nasal secretions contaminating food, water, drinks, either directly or through flies.
- It produces inflation of of the nervous system causing inability to bend and head forward.
- Polio is preventive.
- Salk’s vaccine is available for taking at the age of 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks and booster dose at 18-24 month.
- The Haffkine Institute of Mumbai is known for the production of polio vaccine.
- Influenza is a viral disease caused by Haemophilus influenza or Myxovirus influenzae.
- It spreads by the entering of contaminated air into respiratory tract.
- It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, cold with sneezing and pain all over body with restlessness.
- No vaccine,hygine and sanitation.
- Rabies is a viral disease caused by Rhabdo virus.
- Transmitted to human beings by biting saliva of rabid dog or cat.
- Jackals, wolves, foxes, mongoose, and bat also have rabies virus.
- Initial symptoms of rabies are excessive salvia from mouth, severe headache, high fever, depression and inability to swallow even fluids due to choked throat.
- Fear of water, i.e., hydrophobia is most important characteristic.
- The virus destroy the brain and spinal cord.
- Bitten person should be immediately administered vaccine are recommended.
- Dog should be watched for 10 days for the development of rabies symptoms.
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Hepatitis-[viral disease causes]
- Commonly called jaundice.
- Jaundice is the result of incomplete metabolism of bilirubin pigment of worn out RBC’s.
- Infection spreads through faecal-oral route and polluted water.
- Initially liver is enlarge and congested.
- Symptoms are fever, nausea, vomiting, pains in muscles and joints.Urine is dark and stool is pale.
- Six varieties of hepatitis virus are HAV, HBV, HCV,HDV, HEV, HGV.
- Personal cleanliness, use of boiled water, properly cook food articles and control of flies are require.
- Acquired Immunode Ficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of human immune system.
- Caused by human immuno deficiency virus.
- AIDS was first recognised by the centres for disease control and prevention in 1981.
- HIV can get spread by the following:
(i)Through blood transfusion, e.g., Accidental needle sticks or needle sharing.
(ii)Through sexual contact, e.g., Oral,Vaginal and dual sex.
(iii)From mother to child, e.g., A pregnant woman can transmit virus to her foetus through their blood circulation.
- Major clinical sign or symptoms of AIDS in humans are loss of weight, prolonged fever,chronic diarrhoea, red or brown blotches on or under the skin of nose,mouth, swollen gland, etc.
- ELISA, PCR and RIP/IFA are the confirmatory test for AIDS.
- Anti-retroviral drugs, e.g., AZT , Zidovudine and norvir are use to suppress AIDS.
- Caused by Flavi virus.
- The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmit the virus to humans.
- Symptoms are aching muscles particularly the back and knees dizziness, loss of appetite, nausea, shivers and vomiting skin and white of eyes take on a yellow tinge.
- No effective antiviral medication but making sure the patient’s blood pressure in adequate, replacing lost blood, and treating any secondary infections.
- This disease is not prevalent in India.
- Swine Flu is a viral disease cause by H1N1 virus.
- It is also called Hog flu or pig influenza.
- The risk of this disease is higher in those who consume pork.
- Symptoms are fever, lethargy sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing and declared appetite.
- Tamiflu and relenza vaccine. are used to prevent this disease.
- Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.
- Spreads through raw vegetables, dirty hands and ingestion of contaminated soil.
- Symptoms are nausea, cough and severe abdominal pain.
- Sanitation and uses of anthelmintic drugs.
- Caused by Taenia solium.
- Spreads through improperly cooked food and also through raw vegetables which are not properly washed.
- Symptoms are chronic indigestion, anorexia, similar symptoms of epilepsy.
- Treated by sanitation, use of properly cooked food and helminthic drugs.
- Caused by Wuchereria bancrofti.
- Transmitted by Culex sp. of mosquito.
- Fever,legs may become swollen and resemble with those of elephant. So, this disease also called elephantiasis.
- Destruction of mosquitoes and use of mosquito repellent creams and mats and anthelmintic drugs.
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