viral disease causes

Viral disease are causes by various diseases:

Dengue Fever

  • Caused by DEN-1 virus and transmitted by female Tiger mosquito(Aedes aegypti).
  • It’s symptoms are headache,fever chili,pain in joints and skin rashes.
  • Blood platelets number fall below 70000/mm.
  • Paracetamol with replenishment of blood platelets may be helpful.

Measles [viral disease causes]

  • Caused by Rubeola virus/Polynosa morbillorum.
  • Transmitted by contact, droplet and fomite method.
  • Viruses enters through respiratory tract and conjunctiva.
  • It is characterised by itching,skin rash, small raised red spot in crescent shaped groups starting from back of ears and reaching to forehead, face and then on whole body.
  • Antibiotics and vitamin-A given to prevent complications.


  • Caused by Varicella zoster with incubation period of 14-16 days.
  • It is contagious disease occurs in winter and springs.
  • Presence of prodermal rashes with crops of pinkish centripetal spots first on truck, fore-head and face.
  • Uneasiness, aches and high fever accompany each new crop.
  • Scabs fall off without leaving any mark.
  • No drugs and no vaccines only use of boric acid and calamine reduces itching problem.

Smallpox (Chechuk)

  • Caused by Variola virus.
  • Common but less severe in children of upto 10yr and severe but rare in adults.
  • Infection spreads from oral, nasal, vesicular discharges, pustules and scabs.
  • Symptoms are reddish spots which change into papules,pushtules and finally scabs.
  • Spots appear first on the hair line, then face followed by over rest of the body, but fewer on the trunk.On falling,these spots left permanent marks.
  • Vaccination through small pox vaccine, which has developed by Edward Jenner in 1796.

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  • Caused by Paramyxo or Mumps virus.
  • Transmitted by direct contact, droplet and fomite method.
  • It this disease patient feels difficulty in swallowing and opening of mouth.
  • Symptoms are high fever, chilis, headache and general body aches.
  • Treated by vaccination with MMR.

Polio-[viral disease causes]

  • Caused by Polio virus or Entero virus.
  • Highly infectious disease of infant and children.
  • Transmitted through faeces, urine and nasal secretions contaminating food, water, drinks, either directly or through flies.
  • It produces inflation of of the nervous system causing inability to bend and head forward.
  • Polio is preventive.
  • Salk’s vaccine is available for taking at the age of 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks and booster dose at 18-24 month.
  • The Haffkine Institute of Mumbai is known for the production of polio vaccine.


  • Influenza is a viral disease caused by Haemophilus influenza or Myxovirus influenzae.
  • It spreads by the entering of contaminated air into respiratory tract.
  • It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, cold with sneezing and pain all over body with restlessness.
  • No vaccine,hygine and sanitation.


  • Rabies is a viral disease caused by Rhabdo virus.
  • Transmitted to human beings by biting saliva of rabid dog or cat.
  • Jackals, wolves, foxes, mongoose, and bat also have rabies virus.
  • Initial symptoms of rabies are excessive salvia from mouth, severe headache, high fever, depression and inability to swallow even fluids due to choked throat.
  • Fear of water, i.e., hydrophobia is most important characteristic.
  • The virus destroy the brain and spinal cord.
  • Bitten person should be immediately administered vaccine are recommended.
  • Dog should be watched for 10 days for the development of rabies symptoms.

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Hepatitis-[viral disease causes]

  • Commonly called jaundice.
  • Jaundice is the result of incomplete metabolism of bilirubin pigment of worn out RBC’s.
  • Infection spreads through faecal-oral route and polluted water.
  • Initially liver is enlarge and congested.
  • Symptoms are fever, nausea, vomiting, pains in muscles and joints.Urine is dark and stool is pale.
  • Six varieties of hepatitis virus are HAV, HBV, HCV,HDV, HEV, HGV.
  • Personal cleanliness, use of boiled water, properly cook food articles and control of flies are require.


  • Acquired Immunode Ficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of human immune system.
  • Caused by human immuno deficiency virus.
  • AIDS was first recognised by the centres for disease control and prevention in 1981.
  • HIV can get spread by the following:

(i)Through blood transfusion, e.g., Accidental needle sticks or needle sharing.

(ii)Through sexual contact, e.g., Oral,Vaginal and dual sex.

(iii)From mother to child, e.g., A pregnant woman can transmit virus to her foetus through their blood circulation.

  • Major clinical sign or symptoms of AIDS in humans are loss of weight, prolonged fever,chronic diarrhoea, red or brown blotches on or under the skin of nose,mouth, swollen gland, etc.
  • ELISA, PCR and RIP/IFA are the confirmatory test for AIDS.
  • Anti-retroviral drugs, e.g., AZT , Zidovudine and norvir are use to suppress AIDS.

Yellow Fever

  • Caused by Flavi virus.
  • The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmit the virus to humans.
  • Symptoms are aching muscles particularly the back and knees dizziness, loss of appetite, nausea, shivers and vomiting skin and white of eyes take on a yellow tinge.
  • No effective antiviral medication but making sure the patient’s blood pressure in adequate, replacing lost blood, and treating any secondary infections.
  • This disease is not prevalent in India.

Swine Flu

  • Swine Flu is a viral disease cause by H1N1 virus.
  • It is also called Hog flu or pig influenza.
  • The risk of this disease is higher in those who consume pork.
  • Symptoms are fever, lethargy sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing and declared appetite.
  • Tamiflu and relenza vaccine. are used to prevent this disease.

Helminthic Diseases


  • Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.
  • Spreads through raw vegetables, dirty hands and ingestion of contaminated soil.
  • Symptoms are nausea, cough and severe abdominal pain.
  • Sanitation and uses of anthelmintic drugs.


  • Caused by Taenia solium.
  • Spreads through improperly cooked food and also through raw vegetables which are not properly washed.
  • Symptoms are chronic indigestion, anorexia, similar symptoms of epilepsy.
  • Treated by sanitation, use of properly cooked food and helminthic drugs.


  • Caused by Wuchereria bancrofti.
  • Transmitted by Culex sp. of mosquito.
  • Fever,legs may become swollen and resemble with those of elephant. So, this disease also called elephantiasis.
  • Destruction of mosquitoes and use of mosquito repellent creams and mats and anthelmintic drugs.

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