Our Constitution of India contains 12 Schedules mentioned below:
1.Names of the state and Jurisdiction.
2.Names of Union Territories
3.Change in their borders and the laws used to make that change.
It deals with the salaries and allowances etc. of the President,Vice-President,Cheif Judges of high court ,supreme court and Auditor General of India.
Formation of oath and affirmation.
Allocation of seats for states and Union territories in Rajya Sabha.
Administration and control of Scheduled areas and Schedules Scheduled Tribes. A.P,Chattisgarth,Gujrat,M.P,Jharakhand,Himachal Pradesh ,Maharastra,Odisha,Rajasthan and Telangana.
Administration of tribal areas in Assam,Meghalaya,Tripura,Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
Division of power between union and state.
Defence,Foreign Affarirs,Banking,Railway, Atomic energy
Forest,Education,Transfer of Property
This schedule contain 22 languages of India mentioned in the constitution.Originally there were 14 Languages,last 6 were added by the 92 Amendment act,2003. 1.Assamese 2.Bengali 3.Gujrati 4.Hindi 5.Kannada 6.Kashmiri 7.Konkani 8.Malyalam 9.Manipuri 10.Marathi 11.Nepali 12.Oriya 13.Punjabi 14.Sanskrit 15.Sindhi 16.Telugu 17.Tamil 18.Urdu 19.Bodo 20.Dogri 21.Sanathali 22.Maithali
Added by 1st Amendment in 1951.It deals with regulation of land reforms and abolition of zamindari system.
Added by 52nd Amendment in in 1985 as Anti-defection Law.It contains Provision relating to disqualification of the members of the Parliament and State Legislature on the ground of deflection.
It contains the responsibilities of Panchayat.Added by the 73rd Amendment act of 1992.
Contains the responsibilities of Municipalities.Added by the 74 Amendment act.
Fundamental Rights of Constitution of India
- The fundamental rights stand as, “some of the basic rights given to every indian citizen.
- It protects the citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of the power by the state.
- The Indian Constitution assures the rights of every individual against the state as well as against other individual persons too.
There are 6 SIX fundamental rights of constitution of India:
- Right to Equality
- Right to Freedom
- Right against Exploitation
- Right to Freedom of Religion
- Cultural and Educational Right
- Right to Constitutional Remedies
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1.Preamble is the philosophy of the Indian Constitution.
2.Preamble is the identity card of the Indian Constitution.
3.Preamble is the modern form objective revolution.
Keywords of Preamble:
The Preamble proclaims that India is a Sovereign State. ‘Sovereign’ means that India has its own independent authority and it is not a dominion or dependent state of any other external power. The Legislature of India has the powers to enact laws in the country subject to certain limitations imposed by the Constitution.
Added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976. India has adopted ‘Democratic Socialism’ which means the achievement of socialist ends through democratic means. It holds faith in a mixed economy where both private and public sectors co-exist side by side.
The term Secular in the Constitution of India means that all the religions in India get equal respect, protection, and support from the state. The Indian concept of Secularism is positive secularism as compared to negative secularism in the West (State is strictly divorced from religion). The word ‘Secular’ was incorporated in the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976.
The term Democratic indicates that the Constitution has established a form of government that gets its authority from the will of the people expressed in an election. That means the supreme power lies with the people. It calls into activity the intelligence and character of ordinary men and women.
In a republic, the Head of the state is elected by people directly or indirectly. Political sovereignty is vested in the people rather than a monarch as in the case of Britain (Britain is a democracy but not a republic, it is a constitutional monarchy).In India, the president is elected indirectly by the people.
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The term Justice in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms: Social, economic, and political.
1) Social justice in the Preamble means that the Constitution wants to create a more equitable society based on equal social status.
2) Economic justice means equitable distribution of wealth among the individual members of the society so that wealth is not concentrated in a few hands. Economic justice is the main aim of the state as envisaged by Directive Principles. (Concept of welfare State)
3) Political Justice means that all citizens have equal rights in political participation. Indian Constitution provides for universal adult suffrage and equal value for each vote.
Liberty comes from the Latin root word “liber” meaning freedom. It is the opportunity to develop oneself fully.
1) The Constitution (Supreme Law of Land) secures to all citizens liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship through Fundamental Rights, which are enforceable in the Court of Law. (Art.19). Indian Constitution embodies the concept of Positive liberty. The freedom of many requires restraint of law on freedom of some, hence it is said that “If there are no laws, there is no liberty”.
2) The Ideals of “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” taken from the French Revolution. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” has also given an influence as natural law to the First Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In Indian constitution apart from preamble these are well reflected in fundamental rights and directive principles as well.
The term ‘equality’ means absence of special privileges to any section of the society and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination. The Preamble secures to all citizens equality of status and opportunity. This provision embraces three dimensions of equality – civic, political and economic.
Fraternity means a sense of brotherhood. According to the Preamble, fraternity assures two things – (1) dignity of the individual (2) Unity and integrity of the nation. The word ‘integrity’ by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
Importance of Objectives: It provides a way of life. It includes fraternity, liberty, and equality as the notion of a happy life.
1) Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
2) Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative.
3) Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
4) Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things