There are various kinds of non-communicable diseases,which effect the health of human beings:
- Diabetes is a long-term condition cause by too much glucose in the sugar.
- There are two main types of diabetes.
i) Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin to function properly or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin.
ii) Type 2 diabetes is far more common then type 1 diabetes, which occurs when the body doesn’t produce any insulin at all. Type 2 diabetes usually affects people over the age of 40.
- Symptoms are feeling very thirsty, urination frequently particularly at night, feeling very tired, weight loss and loss of muscle bulk.
- It is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells due to uncontrolled mitotic division into tumour cells.
- The resulting uncontrolled growth forms masses of cells called tumour.
- Cancerous cells are refer as malignant cells.
- Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer.
Causes of Cancer
- They are induce by physical, chemical and biological factors or agents.
- Tobacco smoke contains chemical carcinogens that causes lung cancer.
- Viruses also cause cancer.These are called oncogenic viruses as they have genes called viral oncogenes.
Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
- Leukaemias or blood cancers can get detect based on biopsy and histopathological studies of the tissue and blood and bone marrow tests for increased cell counts.
Cancer therapy are
i) Cryo Surgery
ii) Proton therapy
iii) Radiation therapy
iv) Stem cell transplantation
v) Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
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These are as follows:
1. Atherosclerosis In is a disease, plaque deposits in the lumen of arteries, plaque is made up of fat, Cholesterol , calcium and other substances found in blood.
2. Angina Pectoris It plays a significant role of narrowing of lumen of coronary artery.
3. Myocardial Infarction It is commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die.This is most commonly due it shows clot formed in coronary artery.
4. Heart Failure It occurs when the heart is unable to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body.Heart Failure can cause a number of symptoms including shortness of breadth, leg swelling and exercise intolerance.
It affects the musculoskeletal system specially the joints.It is the main cause of disability among people over 55 yrs of age in industrialised countries.
It is a joint inflation that results from cartilage degeneration. It can be cause by ageing heredity and injury from trauma or diseases. The most common symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the affected joint after repetitive use.
Gout is a kind of arthritis. It can cause an attack of sudden burning pain, stiffness and swelling in a joint usually a blog toe.
Dietary Deficiency Diseases- Non-Communicable Disease
A disease, such as rickets or scurvy or goitre that is cause by a dietary deficiency of specific nutrients, especially a vitamin or mineral.The disease may stem from insufficient intake, digestion, absorption or utilization of a nutrient.
- Goitre is a disease of thyroid gland. It is due to deficiency of iodine.
- Scurvy is a disease of bleeding gums. It is due to deficiency of Vitamin-C.
- Rickets is due to vitamin-D. In this disease, the bones of the children are weak and porus and bonemass becomes less.
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A genetic disorder is an illness cause by one or more abnormalities in the genome most-genetic disorders are quite rare and these may or may not be heritable. these may be of three types:
1. Autosomal Recessive Diseases
These are as follow:
(i) Albinism This disease is cause due to inability to produce melanin pigment. It has characterised by the absence of normal colouration of the skin.
(ii) Galactosemia This is due to defect in galactose metabolism.The important symptom is mental retardation.
(iii) Phenylketonuria It occurs due to the deficiency of an enzyme phenylketonuria hydroxylase which converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. Symptoms are mental retardation,typical colour of skin and urine.
(iv) Alkaptonuria In this metabolic disorder there is absence of homogenic acid oxidase which oxidised homogentisic acid oxidase which oxidises homogenic acid. The urine of such patients darkens on exposure.
2. X-Linked Recessive Diseases
Genes are located in the differential segments of X-chromosome.
- Haemophilia appeared in several inter-related royal families in Europe, apparently arising from a mutation in one parent of Queen Victoria of England (18190, hence it called ‘Royal Disease’
- In this disorder blood coagulation does not take place.It is due to deficiency of factor VIII (antihemophilic factor).
(ii) Colour blindness
- This disease is also known as Daltonism. Affected person can not distinguish between green and red colour. Colourblind person cannot service in railway Dept.
3. Y-Linked Recessive Disease
- Heart block When AV node damage, heart beat does not pass to the ventricle.It is known as heart block.
- Circulatory arrest Blood flow completely arrest.
- Silicosis is an incurable lung disease caused by inhalation of dust that contains free crystalline silica.
- Gigantism disease is caused by excessive growth hormone.
Malnutrition occurs when the body is not receiving enough of the right nutrients to function properly. This can present as under-nutrition, such as wasting and stunting, but also as overweight, obesity, and diet-related NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes and some cancers.
Many countries now experience a ‘double burden’ of malnutrition. This is where under-nutrition occurs alongside over-nutrition, where unhealthy diets are contributing to unhealthy weight gain and diet-related poor health. These unhealthy diets consist of food and drinks with high levels of energy (calories), salt, sugar, and fats, notably industrial trans fats (also known as trans-fatty acids, TFAs or iTFA).
Around the world, 1.9 billion adults are overweight or obese, while 462 million are underweight. In a study that looked at global deaths from 1990 to 2017, it was found that one in every five deaths were the result of poor nutrition.[