Indian Viceroys

Lord Canning (AD 1858-62)

  • The last Governor-General and the first Viceroy.
  • Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
  • Transfer of control from East India Company to the crown, the Government of India Act, in 1859.
  • ‘White Mutiny’ by European troops in 1859.
  • Indian Councils Act of 1861 was passed.

Lord Elgin (AD 1862-63)

Wahabi Movement

Indian Viceroys- Lord John Lawrence (AD 1864-69)

  • He created the Indian Forest Department.
  • Bhutan War of 1865.
  • Setting up of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
  • Opened the Telegraphic Communications in Europe.

The Lord Mayo (AD 1869-72)

  • Opening of the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer for political training of Indian Princes.
  • Establishment of Statistical Survey of India.
  • Establishment of Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
  • Started the process of financial decentralisation in India.

Lord Lytton (AD 1876-80)

  • Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act 1878.
  • Famine of 1876-78 affecting Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, parts of Central India and Punjab, appointment of Famine Commision under the presidency appointment of Famine Commision under the Presidency of Richard Strachey in 1878. He was also called as the Viceroy of reverse characters.
  • Royal Titles in 1876, Queen Victoria assuming the title of ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ or Queen Empress of India.
  • The Arms Act of 1878.

Indian Viceroy- Lord Rippon (AD 1880-84)

  • The first Factory Act in 1881 to improve labour conditions.(Indian Viceroy)
  • Continuation of financial decentralisation.
  • Government resolution on local self-government in 1882.
  • Appointment of Education Commission under chairmanship of Sir William Hunter in 1882.

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Lord Dufferin (AD 1884-88)

Establishment of the Indian National Congress.

Lord Lansdowne (AD 1888-94)

  • Secondary Factory Act of 1891, granted a weekly holiday.
  • Categorization of civil services into imperial, provisional and subordinate.
  • Indian Council Act of 1892, was passed.
  • Setting up of Durand Commision in 1893 to define the Durand Line between India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (AD 1894-99)

  • British officials assassinated by Chapekar brothers in 1897. Lyall commission appointed after famine of 1896-97.

Indian Viceroy- Lord Curzon (AD 1899-05)

  • Appointment of Police Commision in 1902 under Sir Andrew Frazer to review police administration.(Indian Viceroy)
  • Appointment of universities Commision in 1902 and passing of Indian Universities Act in 1904.
  • Establishment of Department of Commerce and Industry.Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.

Lord Minto II (AD 1905-10)

  • Establishment of Muslim League by Agha Khan in 1906.
  • Split of Congress in annual session of 1907 in Surat.
  • The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley-Minto Reforms was passed.
  • Popularization of anti-partition and Swadeshi Movement.

Lord Hardinge II (AD 1910-16)

  • Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.
  • Coronation durbar of king George V held in Dubai in 1911.
  • Creation of Bengal Presidency (like Bombay and Madras) in 1911 or partition of Bengal was Cancelled (1911).
  • Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
  • Establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 by Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  • Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa (1915).
ViceroyLord Chelmsford (AD 1916-21)
  • Formation of Home Rule Leagues By Annie Besant and Tilak in 1916.
  • Lucknow Pact between the Congress and Muslim League in 1916.
  • Appointment of Saddler’s Commission in 1917 for reforms in educational policy.
  • Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.
  • Launch of Non-cooperation and Khilafat Movement.
  • Death of Tilak (1st August, 1920).
  • Appointment of SP Sinha as governor of Bihar (the first Indian to become a governor).

Lord Reading (AD 1921-26)

  • Moplah rebellion in Kerala in 1921.
  • Communist Party was founded in 1921 by MN Roy.
  • Vishwabharti University started in 1922.
  • Establishment of Swaraj Party by CR Das and Motilal Nehru in 1992.
  • Decision to hold simultaneous examination for the ICS both in Delhi and London, with effect from 1923.
  • Kakori train robbery of 1925.

Lord Irwin (AD 1926-31)

  • Appointment of the Harcourt Butler Indian States Commision in 1927 (Indian Viceroy).
  • Visit of Simon-Commision to India in 1928 and Boycott of the Commision by the Indians.
  • An All-Parties Conference held at Lucknow in 1928 for suggestion for the future Constitution of India, the report of which was called the Nehru Reporter or the Nehru Constitution.
  • Murder of Saunders, the assistant superintendent of police of Lahore, bomb blast in the Assembly Hall of Delhi in 1929, the Lahore conspiracy case and bomb accident in train in 1929.

Indian Viceroy- Lord Willingdon (AD 1931-36)

  • Second Round Table Conference in 1931 and failure of the conference, resumption of Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Announcement of Communal Award in 1932 under which separate communal electorates were set up.
  • ‘Fast to death’ by Gandhiji in Yerwada prison,broken after the Poona Act in 1932.
  • Third Round Table Conference of 1932.
  • The Government of India in 1935.
  • Burma separated from India in 1935.
  • Establishment of All India Kisan Sabha in 1936 and Congress Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jaya Prakash Narayan in 1934.

Lord Linlithgow (AD 1936-44)

  • First general elections in 1936-37, Congress attained absolute majority in six states.
  • Registration of the Congress ministries after the outbreak of the World War II in 1939.
  • Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India in 1941 and organization of the Indian National Assembly, its rejection rejection by the Congress.
  • Passing of the ‘Quit India Resolution’ by the Congress in 1942. Outbreak of ‘August Revolution’ or revolt of 1942 after the arrest of national leaders.

Lord Wavell ( AD 1944-47)

  • Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference in 1942.
  • C Rajagopalachari’s CR formula in 1944.
  • End of World War II in 1945.
  • Proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946 and its acceptance by the Congress.
  • Observance of ‘Direct Action Day’ in 16th August, 1948 by the Muslim League.
  • Announcement of the end of British Rule in India by Clement Atlee ( Primary Minister of England) on 20th February, 1947.

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