Articles of Indian constitution are:
Part I (Articles 1 to 4)
The union and its Territories
- Article 1 Deals with name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 Admission or establishment of new states.
- Article 3 Forms of new states and alteration of areas and boundaries or names of the existing states.
- Article 4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 for the amendment of the first and fourth schedules on supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.
Part II (Articles 5 to 11)
Articles of Constitution of India provides for single citizenship.There is no separate citizenship of state.
- Article 5 Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
- Article 6 Rights of Citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 7 Rights of Citizenship of certain migrants to pakistan.
- Article 8 Rights of Citizenship of certain person of Indian origin residing outside India.
- Article 9 Persons voluntarily acquiring Citizenship of a Foreign State not to be citizens.
- Article 10 Continuance of Rights of Citizenship.
- Article 11 Parliament to regulate the Right of Citizenship by Law.
Overseas Citizens of India (OCI)
i)As per the Amendment of the citizenship Act in 2003,people of Indian origin,except in Pakistan and Bangladesh are eligible to be registered as benefits like multiple entries,multipurpose life long visas.
ii)Dual Citizenship The citizenship Amendment Act 2005 was passed by the Parliament to make provision for dual citizenship.
iii) At present,this facility is extended to people of indian origin of 16 specified countries.
Part III (Articles 12 to 35)
- Article 12 definition
- Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights.
Rights to equality(Articles 14 to 18)
- Article 14 Equality before law and equal protection of law.
- Article 15 It prohibits discrimination only on the ground of religion, race,sex caste, place or birth.
- Article 16 It entails to equality of opportunity in the matter of public employment.
- Article 17 It deals with the end of untouchability.
- Article 18 It deals with abolition of titles.
Right to Freedom(Articles 19 to 22)
- Article 19 It guarantees freedom to the citizen of India. Following six fundamentals freedoms are:
i)Freedom of speech and expression.
ii)To assemble peacefully and without arms.
iii)To form association or union.
iv)To move freely throughout the territory of India.
v)To reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
vi)Freedom to choose any profession and business.
- Article 20 It gives protection in respect of conviction for offences.
- Article 21 It give protection of life and personal liberty to both citizens and non-citizens.Articles 20 and 21 remain in force even during emergency.
- Article 22 It entails protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. This right is not available to person arrested or detained under a law providing preventive detention.
Right Against Exploitation (Articles 23 and 24)
- Article 23 It entails prohibition of traffic in human beings and bonded labour.
- Article 24 No child below the age of 14 can be employed in factories or mines or in hazardous employment.
Right to freedom of religion(Articles 25 to 28)
- Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession,practice and propagation of religion.
- Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28 It prohibits any religious instruction in educational institutions wholly maintained by state funds.
Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29 to 31)
Right to Constitutional Remedies (Articles 32 to 35)
Part IV (Articles 36-51)
Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)
Dr B R Ambedkar described the DPSPs ‘novel feature of the Constitution’.DPSPs are constitutional instructions or guidelines to state in a legislative, executive and administrative affairs.It provides the social and economic base of a genuine democracy.
- Article 40 The establishment of village Panchayats and make them powerful enough to function as a unit of self-government.
- Article 46 The promotion of educational and economic interest of weaker sections.
- Article 47 The prohibition of intoxicating drugs and drinks.
- Article 48 Prevention of the slaughter of cows and other milk cattle.
- Article 49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
- Article 50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
- Article 51 Promotion of International Peace and security.
Part V (Articles 52 to 151)
The President (Articles 52 to 78)
Election (Article 54,55,71)
Term of Office and Emolument
- Tenure 5 years (Article 56).
- Article 57 There is no limit, as to how many times a person can become President.
- Article 58 deals with the qualification of a person to be president of India.
- Article 61 The President can be impeached only on the ground of violation of the Constitution.
Vacancy (Article 62)
In the case of vacant seat due to any reason e.g. death,resignation or removal then the vice-president acts as the president, if he is not then chief justice of India.
Power (Article 77)
The President has a very important role.He has vast powers to be exercised during normal time as well as in emergency period.
Parliament (Article 79-123)
Rajya Sabha (Article 80)
Read more-Schedules of Indian Constitution
Part VI (Articles 152 to 237)
- In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,
the expression “State” 2
[does not include the State of
Jammu and Kashmir].
CHAPTER II.—THE EXECUTIVE
- There shall be a Governor for each State:
[Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent
the appointment of the same person as Governor for two
or more States.]
- (1) The executive power of the State shall
rest in the Governor and shall be exercise by him
either directly or through officers subordinate to him in
accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Nothing in this article shall—
(a) be deemed to transfer to the Governor any
functions conferred by any existing law on any other
(b) prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the
State from conferring by law functions on any
authority subordinate to the Governor.
- The President should appoint the governor of the state.
- (1) The Governor shall hold office during the
pleasure of the President.
- (1) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister, and them Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor:
Provided that in the States of 1
[Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand], Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, there shall be a Minister in charge of tribal welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the Scheduled Castes and backward classes or any other work.
[(1A) The total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister in a State shall not be less than twelve: Provided further that where the total number of Ministers including the Chief Minister in the Council of Ministers in any State at the commencement of the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003 exceeds the said fifteen per cent. or the number specified in the first proviso, as the case may be, then the total number of Ministers in that State shall be brought in conformity with the provisions of this clause within six months from such date* as the President may by public notification appoint.
Advocate General For state (Article 165)
The Governor of each State, appoint a person who is qualify to be appoint as a Judge of a High Court to be Advocate-General for the State.
Part VIII (Article 239-241)
it deals with UT’s
- UT’s are administer by President.
- Chandigarh administered by Chief Commissioner.
Part IX (Article 243)
It deals with the Panchayats and Municipalities.
It consist of two parts:
i)It contains 29 subjects related to Panchayati Raj (Administrative powers) and added by 73rd Amendment Act,1992 .
ii)It contains 18 subjects related to Municipalities.
Read More-Five year plan in India
Part X (Articles 244 and 244 A)
This part deals with schedule and tribal areas.
Part XI (Articles 245-263)
It deals with the relations between Union and States.
Part XII (Articles 264-300A)
This part deals with finance,property,contracts and suits.Article 300(A) deals with the right to property,which have taken out of the fundamental rights and included as a legal right by the Constitution 44th Amendment Act,1978.
Part XIII (Articles 301-307)
It relates to trade,commerce and intercourse within the territory of India.
Part XIV (Articles 308-323)
It deals with UPSC and Public Service Commissions.
Part XV (Articles 324-329A)
It deals with election and Election Commision of Union as well as of states.
Part XVI (Articles 330-342)
It deals with the provision for quota of seats in Parliament for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indian representatives.
Part XVII (Articles 343-351)
This is a part related to the official language, promotion of Hindi as well as mother tongues at least in primary education.
Part XVIII (Articles 352-360)
It deals with emergency provisions.
Part XIX (Article 361-367)
It deals with exemption of criminal proceeding for their officials Acts of President and Governors.
Part XX (Article 368)
It deals with constitutional amendment .
Part XXI (Article 369-392)
- Article 369 It gives power to the Parliament to make law for state list.
- Article 370 It contains special provision for Jammu and Kashmir.