Dark Matter- Explanation, Theories and Dark Energy

Our universe is consist of: Regular matter- 5%, Dark Matter- 27% and Dark Energy- 68%

Regular matter is consist of stars, planets, human beings and every other visible object in the universe. Dark matter component has much more mass than the “visible” component of the universe

Dark Matter is named Dark because it does not interact with other particle and light photons can easily pass through it. In this universe it does not interact with any other thing directly but interact indirectly due to gravity.

For the first 150 million years ago, there were no galaxies, stars or planets. As time passed first star formed, stars collected into galaxies and galaxies began to form cluster together and planets in our solar system begin to form around the sun.

The first detection of dark matter had made in 2007 by the observation of bullet cluster of galaxies by the Chandra X-ray telescope.

After some time, another strange thing spotted in the universe by the hubble telescope. It had observed that this universe was actually expanding more slowly that it is today.

Some mysterious pressure in vacuum of space, acting opposite to the force of gravity and is called as Dark Energy. It is a term used to describe acceleration of universe.

It also plays a central role in structure formation and galaxy evolution, and has measurable effects on the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background.


Fritz Zwicky theory

In 1933, an astronomer Fritz Zwicky observes that some galaxies are very big and the total weight of star, planets, asteroids etc. is 1% of the galaxies. W.K.T as the object is bigger the mass of the object is also bigger otherwise it will become unstable. In the Fritz observation it had observed that all the galaxies were stable. He then proposed the term Dark Matter. Researchers had confirmed that this mysterious material can found throughout the cosmos, and that it is six times more abundant than the normal matter that makes up ordinary things like stars and people.

In 1960s and 1970s, Vera Rubin and Kent Ford supports the Fritz theory.

Neil Degrasse Tyson the famous Astrophysicist tell us that about 85% origin of the universe Gravity is still unknown. Instead of dark matter we should call it dark gravity.

Read More- Parallel Universe

Below the mountains of Itlay, scientist used a detector named puma/libra. After thousands of failed experiments, they detect signals for 20years. And they found that a unique periodic pattern. They realizes that they had detected dark matter but after so many failed results it was difficult for other scientist to agree with them.

In south Korea, at Yangyang underground laboratory another detector was made named COSINE-100. After detecting signals for 60 days they do not found any result.

Dark Matter Nature

In theory, whatever (hitherto undiscovered) particle is responsible for dark matter could have any mass at all, and could had created moving quickly or slowly or not at all, relative to the speed of light. But if dark matter moved quickly, its properties would suppress the formation of structure on small scales, leading to different structures than what we can observe.

In particular, we have three lines of observational evidence that constrain the temperature of dark matter: the gravitational lensing of quadruply-lensed quasars, absorption features along the line-of-sight to distant objects, and tidal streams in the Milky Way’s vicinity. All three of these teach us the same thing: dark matter must either be quite heavy or must have been born slow-moving. In other words, dark matter must have been “cold” even in the very early stages of the Universe, as opposed to hot or warm.

Role of Dark Matter

14 billion years ago, when big bang had happened, universe began to cool off and hydrogen and helium began forming. Then we got the secular evolution which means that where the universe started out as small particles and slowly it collected into galaxies. This theory fits of solar system formation, planetary formation and also even life formation. It started of with halos of dark matter after the big bang.

Edwin Hubble was the first to classify the galaxies. Galaxies are always changing and there are many galaxies out there. They collide into one another, they can make more stars, they can merge together and form all sorts of new shapes due to dark matter present inside them.

Read More- Solar System

Leave a Comment